What is organic waste? Common organic waste treatment methods


Organic waste is an essential component in modern environmental management, particularly as the world continues to address the increasing problem of waste disposal into the environment. In this article, we will explore organic waste, its classification, and effective methods of treatment.

1. What is organic waste?

Organic waste is a part of biodegradable waste, generated from natural materials, primarily organic matter found in leftover food, grass, plants, agricultural waste, animal husbandry waste, or biological waste from production processes such as coffee grounds, bagasse, etc.

Organic waste is a part of the natural cycle of biological decomposition, where microorganisms break them down into nutrients for plants and other ecosystems. However, if not handled properly or accumulated for too long in unnatural environments, organic waste can cause problems such as producing harmful emissions and unpleasant odors, impacting the environment. Therefore, proper handling of organic waste is an important part of waste management and environmental protection.

2. Waste classification

Currently, waste is classified into three main categories: inorganic waste, organic waste, and recyclable waste, to facilitate more efficient organization, management, processing, and resource reuse. Below is a detailed description of each type:

Inorganic waste: This type of waste is formed from materials that do not contain carbon or have significant organic components. Inorganic waste is difficult to biodegrade naturally and cannot be recycled or reused. Examples of inorganic waste include metals such as iron, aluminum, copper, steel, other inorganic compounds such as glass, stone, ceramics, and synthetic plastics.

Organic waste: Organic waste is waste material derived from natural sources, generated from activities such as daily living, agricultural production, and agro-industrial production...

Recyclable waste: This type of waste is collected and processed for reuse or recycling into new products. Recyclable waste includes materials such as paper, plastic, metal, glass, and wood. Recycling waste helps reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills, reduces negative environmental impacts, and creates business opportunities while cutting costs for enterprises.

3. Effective organic waste treatment methods

Effective organic waste treatment methods play a crucial role in minimizing the negative impacts of waste on the environment. Many businesses also apply organic waste treatment technologies to develop a green industry. Here are some common methods used today:

3.1. Landfilling organic waste

Landfilling organic waste is one of the traditional and common methods for organic waste treatment. To treat organic waste using this method, the following steps can be taken:

  • Step 1: Organic waste grouping: Before landfilling, organic waste needs to be collected and sorted to remove unsuitable or hazardous materials.
  • Step 2: Landfill site selection: Ensuring safety and environmental protection, avoiding contamination of groundwater sources.
  • Step 3: Soil sterilization: Before landfilling, soil samples can be taken and tested to ensure soil quality. This helps determine if the soil is suitable for landfilling, and if necessary, additional control measures can be implemented.
  • Step 4: Proceed with organic waste landfilling.
  • Step 5: Cover the top with a layer of soil to prevent odors and keep the waste from spreading.

Some advantages and disadvantages of this treatment method are:


  • Low cost
  • Easy to implement
  • Easy to manage


  • Pollution to surrounding areas due to methane gas generated during landfill decomposition
  • Groundwater pollution from leachate during decomposition

3.2. Incineration of organic waste

Incineration of organic waste is a more efficient approach. This process not only reduces waste volume but also generates renewable energy. However, it is essential to ensure controlled incineration processes to avoid pollution.



  • Efficient waste disposal: The incineration process destroys organic components in waste, minimizing pollution.
  • Energy conversion: The incineration process produces heat energy that can be converted into electricity or fuel.
  • Disinfection capability: High temperatures during incineration can disinfect waste, reducing the risk of infection and disease.


  • Air pollution: Incineration generates air pollutants and steam, causing air pollution if not well controlled.
  • Production of toxic gases: In some cases, incineration can produce hazardous substances such as dioxins and furans.
  • Requires control and management: To ensure efficient and safe incineration, control of temperature, oxygen levels, and fuel distribution in the furnace is necessary.

3.3. Composting organic waste

This method facilitates natural decomposition of organic waste by composting in a special environment, promoting decomposition and producing organic fertilizer.

For small-scale applications, in households: Organic waste is composted in containers such as plastic bottles, foam boxes, or small bins. Natural compost produced from this process is then used to fertilize plants in household gardens. For households needing to process large amounts of organic waste or wanting a faster composting process, they can choose to purchase suitable waste processing machines.


For larger-scale applications: Organic waste is collected and subjected to shredding and aerobic decomposition. This process is carried out at large waste treatment plants, requiring machinery and high operating costs. However, this process can handle large amounts of organic waste and produce fertilizers or other valuable products from waste, reducing negative environmental impacts.


  • Creation of natural fertilizers: The composting process produces organic fertilizers rich in nutrients, beneficial for soil health.
  • Reduction of waste volume: Using composting methods helps reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills or waste treatment plants.


  • Long composting time: The composting process can take a long time (from several months to several years), depending on conditions and materials.
  • Requires specific conditions: Composting requires conditions of moisture, temperature, and air circulation, as well as careful care and management to ensure effectiveness.

4. The importance of organic waste treatment

Organic waste treatment plays a crucial role in reducing environmental pollution and protecting human health. By selecting and applying effective treatment methods, we can minimize the negative impacts of organic waste on the living environment.

  • Environmental protection
  • Reducing waste volume
  • Reusing raw materials
  • Improving soil quality
  • Reducing social impacts
  • Renewable energy source

5. Conclusion

Thus, organic waste is an important part of the current waste management issue. Applying effective treatment methods not only helps reduce environmental pollution but also creates opportunities for recycling and sustainable resource use. RX Tradex hopes to have partly answered the questions "What is organic waste? What does organic waste include? What are the types of organic waste?". This can help businesses apply and explore more ideas to find suitable solutions and technologies. Businesses can learn more about the 2024 Exhibition to connect with leading units in the waste management field.